Types Of Lopus

Types Of Lopus/ Key Differences to Know

Table of Contents

Lupus is a challenging disease for doctors. It is a chronic autoimmune disease that causes inflammation throughout your body in various type. Autoimmune disease occurs when your immune system is responsible for inflammation and the breakdown of its own cells. (that is, the body hurts itself).

Basically, the body’s immune system is responsible for destroying microbes and cells that may turn into cancer.

Autoimmune diseases are characterized by the mistake of the immune system in attacking the healthy tissues of the body.

The inflammation caused by Lupus severely affects different tissues and organs of the body., including the following:

  • joints
  • Skin
  • Heart
  • Blood
  • lung
  • the brain
  • kidneys

 Related: “What Are The First Signs Of Kidney Stone? The Hidden Danger

This disease can be severe and potentially life-threatening. This disorder can cause permanent damage to body parts. 

However, many people with Lupus experience a mild version of it. Although currently, there is no known cure for Lupus; treatments are used to control the disease and reduce its severity.

Related: “Is There Any Non-Surgical Treatment For A Brain Aneurysm?

Types Of Lopus 01

What are the types of Lupus?


  • Systemic lupus erythematosus

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is the most known and common type of Lupus. Systemic lupus erythematosus gets its name from the fact that it typically affects several different systems in your body, including:

    1. kidneys
    2. Skin
    3. joints
    4. Heart
    5. nervous system
    6. lungs


This type of Lupus can vary from mild to severe. This disease causes symptoms that may worsen over time and then improve. 

Times when your symptoms get worse are called flares, while periods, when they improve or go away, are called remissions.

Related: “How Do You Know If Pneumonia Is Viral Or Bacterial?

Types Of Lopus 02
  • Cutaneous Lupus

    This type of Lupus usually occurs on the skin. It may lead to rashes and permanent lesions with ulcers. There are several types of cutaneous Lupus, including:

    •  Acute cutaneous Lupus: This type causes “butterfly rash”. It is a red rash that appears on the cheeks and nose.
    • Subacute Lupus: This type of cutaneous Lupus causes a rash that is red, inflamed, and scaly. It is often in sun-exposed areas and does not usually lead to ulcers.
    • Chronic cutaneous Lupus: This type is accompanied by a purple or red rash. It can also cause discoloration, scarring, and hair loss


Related: “Skin Blemishes To Worry About/ Comprehensive Guide

Types Of Lopus 03
  • lupus discoid.

    While acute cutaneous Lupus is often associated with systemic lupus disease, subacute and chronic Lupus usually occurs only on the skin.

Types Of Lopus 04
  • Neonatal Lupus

    This disorder is very rare and occurs in babies whose mothers have specific autoimmune antibodies. These autoimmune antibodies are transferred from mother to fetus across the placenta.

Not all mothers with these antibodies have symptoms of Lupus! In fact, about 25 percent of mothers who give birth to a baby with Lupus have no symptoms of Lupus. However, it is estimated that 50% of these mothers will show symptoms within three years.

Symptoms of this disease may include the following:


Related: “Trimesters Of Pregnancy / Comprehensive Guide To The Stage Of Pregnancy

While some babies may have heart defects, most have symptoms that go away after a few months.

However, antibodies (SSA/B) can cross the placenta and cause heart problems.

Mothers with these antibodies should be closely followed during pregnancy by specialists, including rheumatologists and obstetricians.

  • Drug-induced Lupus

The use of certain prescription drugs can lead to drug-induced Lupus (DIL). This disorder may also be known as drug-induced lupus erythematosus (DILE).


Drug-induced Lupus can be caused by long-term use of certain prescription drugs.

There are many medications that can cause drug-induced Lupus. Some examples are:

• Antimicrobials: such as terbinafine (antifungal) and pyrazinamide (tuberculosis drug)

• Anticonvulsants: such as phenytoin (Dilantin) and valproate

• Arrhythmia drugs, such as quinidine and procainamide

• High blood pressure medications: such as timolol (Thymoptic, Istlol) and hydroxyzine

• biologic

While drug-induced Lupus mimics the symptoms of systemic Lupus, in most cases, the disease does not usually affect the major organs. 

However, it can cause pericarditis and pleurisy. Drug-induced Lupus usually disappears within a few weeks of stopping the consumption of that drug.

Drug-induced Lupus

Causes of Lupus

Lupus occurs when the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks healthy body tissues. Lupus appears to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors.


People who have a hereditary background of lupus disease may get this disease in contact with environmental causes of Lupus. However, in many cases, the cause of the disease is unknown.


Some of the potential triggers for causing the disease include:

  • Sunlight
  • Exposure to the sun may cause skin lesions or cause an internal reaction in susceptible individuals.
  • medicines

Lupus disease can be caused by certain types of anticonvulsant drugs, blood pressure drugs, and antibiotics. 

People whose lupus disease is caused by drug use usually stop taking that type of drug, and their lupus symptoms also disappear.


Types Of Lopus 05

Common problems in Lupus


1- Kidney problems

About three-quarters of lupus patients have kidney problems. This problem has no obvious symptoms. Some people notice swelling of their feet or ankles. Some people notice kidney problems when blood or abnormal protein appears in a urine test.

Related: “What Is A Stent For Kidney Stones? Painless Removal


2- Heart problems

Swelling around the heart is seen in patients with Lupus. This problem causes pain in the left side of the chest. Some people suffer from blood clots and heart valve diseases.


3- Lung problems

The lung tissue becomes swollen and causes difficulty breathing or chest pain.

Sometimes, Lupus causes chest pain that is not related to the heart or lungs. This pain occurs as a result of swelling of the chest muscles or rib joints.


4- Digestive problems

Lupus usually does not cause digestive problems. However, some people experience heartburn, vomiting, difficulty swallowing, and swelling of the pancreas or liver. These symptoms are caused by Lupus or its treatment drugs.


5- Anemia

Lupus and its treatment drugs cause anemia. There are few red blood cells in the blood, and they are destroyed quickly. Symptoms of anemia include fatigue, heart palpitations, and shortness of breath.


6- Nervous problems

Headache is a common problem in these patients. Memory problems are less common. Some patients with Lupus have strokes and seizures.


7- mental health

Patients may become depressed and angry.

Related: “Sertraline, Unlocking The Mysteries/ Benefits vs Risks


Is Lupus contagious?

Lupus is not a contagious disease. Contagious means the transmission of a disease from one person to another. Examples of contagious diseases include things like the flu and the common cold.

What exactly causes Lupus is quite complex. Rather than “getting lupus from someone else,” Lupus is believed to be caused by a combination of factors. Including things like:

  • Your environment
  • Hormones
  • Genetics

Therefore, although some people with a family history of Lupus are more at risk of contracting it, they do not catch the disease from another person. In fact, you may have a family history of Lupus and never get it!



Lupus is a disease caused by a mistake of the immune system, which you must have full knowledge about beforehand. By knowing its types and its causes, prevention can be seriously followed.

But you should know that if you are also suffering from lupus disease or people from your family are involved in this disease, they should be under strict care Because Lupus has no known cure, and only special care can prevent the progression of this disease.

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Author and specialist

Dr. Majid Zahrabi,


  • Board Certified Neurosurgeon
  • DHA certificate holder
  • Plantation certificate holder, France
  • Certified holder of Discogol, France
  • A pioneer in the non-surgical treatment of disc herniation in the Middle East and CIS countries.
  • Under the training and coaching of Professor Jacques Theron (founder of Discogel Therapy) since 2008
  • More than 400 successful cervical and 1300 lumbar discogel injections
  • Trained and certified several neurosurgeons and spine surgeons in the Middle East and CIS countries for the treatment of Discogel
  • Strong belief in patient-centered care planning and participation
  • Neurosurgeon and spine surgeon at Imam Khomeini and Amir Mazandarani Hospital, Sari, Iran, with more than 430 surgeries annually, 2000-2011
  • Neurosurgeon and spine surgeon at Farmaniyeh, Nikan and Yas Sepid Hospital, Tehran, Iran, with more than 400 surgeries annually, 2011-2012
  • Neurosurgeon at Iranian Hospital, Dubai, 2022-2023
  • Since 2015, he has been working as a reference doctor for the treatment of intervertebral disc herniation with Discogel and has trained many doctors of spine-related specialties in various countries of the Middle East and CIS in person/practically and online.



  • Individual training sessions under the direct supervision of Professor Jacques Theron in Discogel treatment, 2008-2020
  • Training sessions under the supervision of Professor Thierry Boye on spinal implants, 2007
  • Participation and presentation in several national and international medical and neuro-spinal conferences
  • Board certificate by Iran Neurosurgery Board, 2001
  • Neurosurgery assistant training course, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran, 1996-2001 (In 2001, he graduated from Isfahan University of Medical Sciences with the first rank in the country.
  • His thesis the titled:The Application of human amniotic membrane in repair of dura matter in dogs.” ( It was happening for the first time in the world. )
  • General medical education, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran, 1984-1993


Published books:

  • CT scan of the brain for doctors
  • Etiology and treatment of painful spine disorders
  • Atlas of diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of spine disorders
  • The most common mistakes in the treatment of spinal disorders
  • Reading brain CT scan in simple language (3rd place in the book of the year)
  • Treatment of head and spine injuries

Publications and articles:

  • Bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects of DISCOGEL® (https://www.researchgate.net/)
  • Muscle recovery, reduction of pain, and improvement of movement strategies in patients with lumbar discopathy after injection of Discogel.
  • The article on the initial results of the treatment of intervertebral disc herniation with discogel injection, which won the second-best poster rank at the Pan Arab International Congress of Interventional Radiology (March 14-16, 2015) and was accepted for presentation at the Chicago Pain Congress.
  • The use of human amniotic membrane in dura mater repair in dogs, a study for the first time in the world.



  • Annual Congress of Physiotherapists of Iran, 2019
  • Chicago International Pain Congress, 2019
  • Iran International Pain Management Congress, 2018
  • Annual Congress of Physiotherapists of Iran, 2018
  • Presentation of Discogel as an innovative solution for the treatment of spinal disc herniation in Armenia for orthopedic specialists and neurosurgeons, 2017
  • First Live Workshop and Seminar on Minimally Invasive Disc Therapy (DISCON), 2017
  • Presentation of Discogel as an innovative solution for the treatment of spinal disc herniation in Azerbaijan for orthopedic specialists and neurosurgeons, 2016
  • Seminar of Iranian official managers, 2016
  • Presentation of Discogel as an innovative solution for the treatment of spinal disc herniation in Tajikistan for orthopedic specialists and neurosurgeons, 2016
  • International Neurological Intervention Congress in Iran, 2014
  • Educational seminar for nurses on treatment approaches for head and spine trauma, 2014
  • Educational seminar for general practitioners on treatment approaches for head and spine trauma, 2014
  • Speech at the Retraining Seminar for General Practitioners and Specialists in Dubai (Discon) in 2017
  • Speech in the internal retraining courses of Irani Hospital, Dubai
  • Holding lecture sessions and practical workshops on the treatment of intervertebral disc herniation with discogel injection in Azerbaijan, Tajikistan, Ukraine, Oman, and Armenia during the years 2015 to 2021.
  • Giving a lecture and holding a practical workshop for neurosurgeons in Vietnam at Ho Chi Minh City University in 2023

Dr. Majid Zohrabi started treating his patients in Dubai in 2022 and continues his activities in private medical centers in the UAE.