Top 10 Autoimmune-Disease

Top 10 Autoimmune Disease

Table of Contents

An autoimmune disease is when your immune system mistakenly attacks your body. The immune system protects the body against germs, bacteria, and viruses. When it senses foreign invaders, it sends an army of fighting cells to attack them. The immune system may tell the difference between foreign cells and its cells.

In an autoimmune disease, the immune system wrongs parts of your body, such as joints or skin, for a foreign invader and releases proteins called autoantibodies that attack healthy cells. Some autoimmune diseases target only one organ. 

Type 1 diabetes detriments the pancreas. Other diseases, like systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), modify the entire body.

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There are over 80 different autoimmune diseases. Here we will introduce 10 of the most common ones:

Top 10 Autoimmune Diseases

  • 1. Rheumatoid arthritis (rheumatism)

Rheumatism is an inflammatory autoimmune disease that affects the knees, joints, and wrists. The symptoms of this disease are usually seen on both sides of the body and include the following:

    • tiredness
    • Joint stiffness or swelling
    • weakness
    • Weight Loss

Environmental and genetic factors play a role in rheumatism. This disease is more common among women, the elderly, those who smoke, and obese people.

Doctors use disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs to treat rheumatoid arthritis. These drugs slow down the progression of the disease and prevent the deformity of the joints. 

Other treatment options include biologics, corticosteroids, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

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  • 2 . Lupus autoimmune disease

Lupus attacks the skin, joints, blood vessels, or internal organs and causes inflammation. 

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is the most prevalent and severe type of this disorder that affects multiple organs. People with lupus may experience periods of remission and flare-ups.

The most apparent feature of lupus disorder is the butterfly-shaped rash on the face, cheeks, and nose. 

Related: “Skin Blemishes To Worry About

Common symptoms include fatigue, pain, joint swelling, fever, and skin rashes. Lupus can also cause the following problems:

Genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors can cause lupus. 

Potential environmental triggers for this disease include fatigue, stress, infection, and exposure to the sun’s ultraviolet rays. 

Related: “ How To Prevent Sunburn Without Sunscreen?

Some medications (such as sulfa drugs) may lead to lupus flares. Some side effects of sulfa drugs are sensitivity to sunlight, reduction of blood cells, and skin rashes.

The goal of treating lupus disorder is to reduce pain and inflammation. Corticosteroids are prescribed to suppress inflammation, and antimalarial drugs are prescribed to prevent relapse. 

Aspirin, ibuprofen, or acetaminophen may also be helpful.

Related: “What Is The Difference Between Intermittent, Remittent, And Relapsing Fever?

Lupus autoimmune disease
  • 3. autoimmune disease psoriasis/ psoriatic arthritis

Skin cells usually grow and are shed when they are no longer needed. Psoriasis reasons skin cells to multiply too rapidly. 

The extra cells build up and form red, inflamed patches, usually plaques with silvery-white scales on the skin. Up to 30% of people with psoriasis also experience swelling, stiffness, and joint pain. This form of the disease is called psoriatic arthritis.

psoriasis autoimmune disease
  • 4. autoimmune disease, multiple sclerosis (MS)

Multiple sclerosis, or MS, is a condition in which autoantibodies attack the myelin sheath that covers nerves and is essential for proper functioning.

This disease may have different symptoms depending on the specific area of the affected nervous system, including vision problems, sensory disturbances such as numbness and tingling, bladder problems, weakness, loss of coordination, and tremors.

There is no particular diagnostic test for MS; However, your doctor will use a few different tests to help diagnose it, such as:

blood test

Evoked potential (a test that examines the response of the nervous system)

Lumbar puncture (cerebrospinal fluid examination)


Early symptoms of MS may be more physical, while later symptoms affect a person’s mood or cognition. Some factors, such as genetics, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and environmental factors, increase the risk of expanding this disease.

There is no definitive cure for MS, but available solutions can help in the following cases:

    • Reducing the frequency of disease recurrence
    • Slow down the progression of the disease
    • Reduction of severe relapses
    • Symptom relief

Corticosteroids, immunomodulators, muscle relaxants, anticonvulsants, and supportive care are all treatments for MS.

Ms autoimmune disease
  • 5. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis autoimmune disease

Your thyroid is a small gland in the front of your neck that regulates various functions. This gland produces thyroid hormone, which controls metabolism, heart rate, temperature, mood, and more.

Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is the most common reason for hypothyroidism because it destroys the cells of the thyroid gland and reduces hormone production.

 Symptoms include fatigue, weight gain, constipation, hair loss, or a slow heart rate. Of course, people with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis may not have any symptoms at first.

People with celiac disease, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren’s syndrome, or type 1 diabetes may be at risk for developing Hashimoto’s thyroiditis; a family history of this disease can increase the probability of getting this disorder.

Treatment of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis requires regular visits to the doctor. Many patients have to use levothyroxine.

thyroiditis autoimmune disease
  • 6. Graves’ autoimmune disease

In people with this disease, the immune system attacks the thyroid gland, but instead of destroying thyroid cells, it leads to the overproduction of hormones.

Graves’ disease is the most common reason of hyperthyroidism and causes the following symptoms:

    • Enlargement of the thyroid gland
    • Fast heartbeat
    • Nervousness or irritability
    • diarrhea
    • Weight Loss
    • sleep problems

Many people with Graves’ autoimmune disease have problems such as swelling or bulging of the eyes. In rare cases, the condition causes redness and thickening of the skin on the legs and tops of the feet.

Genes, hormones, and environmental factors, including stress, pregnancy, and infection, play a role in developing Graves’ disease. Antithyroid drugs are usually given to these patients. 

Surgery or using radioactive iodine to destroy thyroid cells may be recommended in other cases. If you do either of these options, you will need to take thyroid hormone to replace what your body no longer makes.

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  • 7. autoimmune disease vitiligo

This disease is a disorder in which the skin loses its color and white spots appear on the skin. These spots may be less than 5 mm or larger. If there is hair in the vitiligo area, it will turn white or gray.

Vitiligo occurs when melanin is not produced due to a disorder and weakness of the body’s immune system, and as a result, the skin loses its color. In other words, attacking melanin cells destroys them. 

People between the ages of 10 and 30 are usually affected by this disease.

Related: “ What Causes Skin Pigmentation Disorder?

autoimmune disease vitiligo
  • 8. autoimmune disease, alopecia areata

Alopecia areata is a common reason for hair loss and usually causes round bald areas on the scalp. However, this disease may also affect the eyebrows, eyelashes, genital area, and armpits.

Other names for this disorder are local tinea capitis and nervous tinea capitis.

Alopecia is an autoimmune disease, and this condition is caused by the fact that the immune system of the individual’s body does not recognize the hair follicle as its own and treats it as a stranger. 

The immune response created by the body often results in patchy hair loss on the scalp. 

T lymphocytes are integrated around the affected follicle and cause inflammation and subsequent hair loss. In this case, the damage to the hair follicle is not permanent. 

This problem can affect people of all ages, and it often starts in childhood and may be seen in the family. 

A few cases of babies born with congenital regional tinea versicolor have also been recorded. However, these cases are not considered autoimmune diseases because the baby’s immune system is not fully developed.

alopecia areata and autoimmune disease
  • 9. Crohn’s disease

One type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is the autoimmune disease Crohn’s disease, which causes your digestive tract to become inflamed and irritated. If you have Crohn’s, you may experience symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss, and rectal bleeding.

It is a lifelong disease that cannot be cured. However, Crohn’s disease treatments usually control your symptoms and allow you to lead an active life. Crohn’s disease is a lifelong inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). 

This disease inflames and irritates the digestive system – especially the small and large intestines. Crohn’s disease can cause diarrhea and stomach cramps. Sometimes it flares up. 

Crohn’s disease is named by the American gastroenterologist Dr. Burrill Crohn (1884-1983). He was one of the first doctors to describe this disease in 1932. Ulcerative colitis is another commonly diagnosed inflammatory bowel disease.

Related: “Symptoms Of A Failing Liver

Crohn's disease
  • 10. Celiac autoimmune disease

When people with this autoimmune disease consume gluten (a protein in wheat, rye, and barley), their immune system attacks and detriments the small intestine; As a result, absorption of nutrients in the gut is reduced, which can be detrimental to health in the long run.

Celiac disease usually runs in families. If a person’s father, mother, child, sister, or brother suffers from this disease, there is a 4-15% chance that he will also be affected by this disorder.

Celiac causes gastrointestinal symptoms in children, such as bloating, vomiting, chronic diarrhea, or constipation. Gastrointestinal symptoms are less common in adults. Adults may experience fatigue, anemia, menstrual irregularities, or osteoporosis symptoms.


When people’s immune system acts against their body, they get autoimmune diseases. Some diseases are easily treated, while others impose a problematic treatment process on the patient. 

Some autoimmune diseases stay with a person for the rest of their life; unfortunately, some are fatal. Autoimmune diseases are one of the ten prominent reasons for death in women of all ages (up to age 64).

Some experts believe that the food you consume can be effective in the occurrence or process of autoimmune diseases; in addition, doing physical exercises can be impressive in controlling the symptoms of the disease.

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Author and specialist

Dr. Majid Zahrabi,


  • Board Certified Neurosurgeon
  • DHA certificate holder
  • Plantation certificate holder, France
  • Certified holder of Discogol, France
  • A pioneer in the non-surgical treatment of disc herniation in the Middle East and CIS countries.
  • Under the training and coaching of Professor Jacques Theron (founder of Discogel Therapy) since 2008
  • More than 400 successful cervical and 1300 lumbar discogel injections
  • Trained and certified several neurosurgeons and spine surgeons in the Middle East and CIS countries for the treatment of Discogel
  • Strong belief in patient-centered care planning and participation
  • Neurosurgeon and spine surgeon at Imam Khomeini and Amir Mazandarani Hospital, Sari, Iran, with more than 430 surgeries annually, 2000-2011
  • Neurosurgeon and spine surgeon at Farmaniyeh, Nikan and Yas Sepid Hospital, Tehran, Iran, with more than 400 surgeries annually, 2011-2012
  • Neurosurgeon at Iranian Hospital, Dubai, 2022-2023
  • Since 2015, he has been working as a reference doctor for the treatment of intervertebral disc herniation with Discogel and has trained many doctors of spine-related specialties in various countries of the Middle East and CIS in person/practically and online.



  • Individual training sessions under the direct supervision of Professor Jacques Theron in Discogel treatment, 2008-2020
  • Training sessions under the supervision of Professor Thierry Boye on spinal implants, 2007
  • Participation and presentation in several national and international medical and neuro-spinal conferences
  • Board certificate by Iran Neurosurgery Board, 2001
  • Neurosurgery assistant training course, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran, 1996-2001 (In 2001, he graduated from Isfahan University of Medical Sciences with the first rank in the country.
  • His thesis the titled:The Application of human amniotic membrane in repair of dura matter in dogs.” ( It was happening for the first time in the world. )
  • General medical education, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran, 1984-1993


Published books:

  • CT scan of the brain for doctors
  • Etiology and treatment of painful spine disorders
  • Atlas of diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of spine disorders
  • The most common mistakes in the treatment of spinal disorders
  • Reading brain CT scan in simple language (3rd place in the book of the year)
  • Treatment of head and spine injuries

Publications and articles:

  • Bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects of DISCOGEL® (https://www.researchgate.net/)
  • Muscle recovery, reduction of pain, and improvement of movement strategies in patients with lumbar discopathy after injection of Discogel.
  • The article on the initial results of the treatment of intervertebral disc herniation with discogel injection, which won the second-best poster rank at the Pan Arab International Congress of Interventional Radiology (March 14-16, 2015) and was accepted for presentation at the Chicago Pain Congress.
  • The use of human amniotic membrane in dura mater repair in dogs, a study for the first time in the world.



  • Annual Congress of Physiotherapists of Iran, 2019
  • Chicago International Pain Congress, 2019
  • Iran International Pain Management Congress, 2018
  • Annual Congress of Physiotherapists of Iran, 2018
  • Presentation of Discogel as an innovative solution for the treatment of spinal disc herniation in Armenia for orthopedic specialists and neurosurgeons, 2017
  • First Live Workshop and Seminar on Minimally Invasive Disc Therapy (DISCON), 2017
  • Presentation of Discogel as an innovative solution for the treatment of spinal disc herniation in Azerbaijan for orthopedic specialists and neurosurgeons, 2016
  • Seminar of Iranian official managers, 2016
  • Presentation of Discogel as an innovative solution for the treatment of spinal disc herniation in Tajikistan for orthopedic specialists and neurosurgeons, 2016
  • International Neurological Intervention Congress in Iran, 2014
  • Educational seminar for nurses on treatment approaches for head and spine trauma, 2014
  • Educational seminar for general practitioners on treatment approaches for head and spine trauma, 2014
  • Speech at the Retraining Seminar for General Practitioners and Specialists in Dubai (Discon) in 2017
  • Speech in the internal retraining courses of Irani Hospital, Dubai
  • Holding lecture sessions and practical workshops on the treatment of intervertebral disc herniation with discogel injection in Azerbaijan, Tajikistan, Ukraine, Oman, and Armenia during the years 2015 to 2021.
  • Giving a lecture and holding a practical workshop for neurosurgeons in Vietnam at Ho Chi Minh City University in 2023

Dr. Majid Zohrabi started treating his patients in Dubai in 2022 and continues his activities in private medical centers in the UAE.