Skin Blemishes To Worry About/ Comprehensive Guide 02

Skin Blemishes To Worry About/ Comprehensive Guide

Table of Contents

Having fresh and perfect skin is one of the main criteria of beauty, and you can have healthy and beautiful skin by doing the proper routine and skin care methods. 

However, sometimes, for various reasons, specific symptoms called spots appear on the skin, which is usually unpleasant for many people.

  A blemish is any mark, color change, or defect on the skin. Skin blemishes are created in different parts of the skin of the face and body, and the reason for their appearance is the excessive proliferation of melanins.

Melanins are skin pigment cells that give color to the skin, and when their number is higher than usual in a part of the skin, that area appears darker and sometimes lighter than the standard color of the skin. 

Most skin spots are harmless, but some may indicate an underlying disease, such as skin cancer, requiring prompt treatment.

mechanism of skin pigmentation 0014

Causes of skin blemishes

  • Genetics

Acne is genetic in some people. Also, according to research, some hereditary diseases can cause skin spots. These diseases include:

  • Darier’s disease; 

This disease causes skin blemishes like warts on the skin. The complications caused by this disease are greasy smelly, and painful to touch.

  • Fabry disease;

This is an inherited disorder, a type of gene mutation. Small groups of dark and red spots are one of the symptoms of this disease.

Adult gangliosidosis types 3; This is a rare and hereditary disease that causes non-cancerous skin blemishes on the lower body.

  • Viruses

Some skin lesions, such as cold sores, are caused by viruses such as HSV 1. Also, the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes complications such as chicken pox.

  • Infections

Certain types of skin Bacterial or viral infections can cause skin blemishes. These include Malassezia folliculitis (fungal acne) or an infection in the hair follicles. 

An overgrowth of yeast causes this condition and causes pus pimples to appear. Oil therapy using tea tree oil is a standard method of treating skin blemishes with an infectious root. 

This natural product has antiseptic properties and is effective in reducing skin inflammations.

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  • Exposure to sunlight

Excessive exposure to the sun’s harmful ultraviolet rays can cause skin cancer, hyperpigmentationsunburn and other skin complications. 


  • Diet

Everything you eat affects your skin. Food allergies and contact dermatitis, consumption of dairy products such as skim milk, and diets high in sugar and carbohydrates can cause spots on the skin.

  • Clogged pores

Extra oil can merge with dead skin cells, pollution, and bacteria, leading to clogged porespimples, and blemishes. The leading causes of this are:

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  • Medicines

Some medications cause acne. These drugs include:

    • Corticosteroids
    • Androgenic
    • steroids
    • lithium
    • Diabetes disease

One of the complications related to diabetes includes acanthosis nigricans, which have result in darkening of the skin, velvety skin, and spots on the legs, or diabetic dermopathy. Sometimes this condition is confused with age spots.

  • Irritability of the skin

Skin irritation by skin or hair cosmetic products can cause dark spots.

  • Wounds and injuries

Sometimes, after the wound or injury heals, dark skin blemishes remain.

  • Childhood freckles

Having freckles since childhood means the skin darkens when exposed to the sun and heat and fades in winter. Freckles alone are not a cause for concern unless accompanied by something else.

Acanthoses nigricans 00045
  • Melasma complication

Characterized by irregular dark spots, the condition is more common in women and may appear in the 20s and 30s. 

These spots are often caused by overexposure to the sun and changes in hormone levels associated with birth control pills, pregnancy, or hormone therapy after menopause; They intensify.

 Low thyroid hormone levels may also play a role in this condition. Melasma can affect people with dry and oily skin types and darken with sun exposure. 

This condition may also disappear during menopause as estrogen and progesterone levels decrease.

  • Liver spots

Liver spots appears in irregular skin blemishes, larger than freckles and with a light to dark brown color. The cause of this complication is exposure to sunlight

melasma complication
liver spots 55445

Methods of diagnosing skin blemishes

One of the best ways to identify the type of skin spots is its color and appearance. Therefore:

  • Red spots: Many skin blemishes are red. This spot color may indicate rosacea, allergic reactions, ingrown hairs, or cold sores.
  • Brown spots: Malignant melanoma, congenital signs, pigment disorder, and melasma cause skin blemishes that are grayish brown.
  • Black spots: Malignant melanoma appears as dark skin blemishes. Blackheads are sometimes surrounded by a halo of red or appear as raised black dots.
  • White spots: Whiteheads and certain fungal infections appear as white skin blemishes.
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What are the types of skin blemishes?

  1. Acne

Acne is one of the most common skin blemishes, appearing as black or whiteheads. 

This condition is caused by blocked hair follicles by fat, bacteria absorption, environmental pollution, hormonal changes, and stress. 

This complication leaves skin blemishes and darkness on the skin.

  1. Scar

A skin scar occurs when the dermis layer is damaged. The dermis is a deep layer of the skin that contains tiny blood vessels (capillaries), sweat glands, hair follicles, and nerves. 

Anything that causes the skin to break open can lead to scarring. Ulcers, cuts or prominent pimples are among the causes of this skin condition. 

  1. Age spots

This condition, known as liver spots, are small, dark-colored spots that appear in any part of the body that is exposed to the sun. 

This complication is more common in people over fifty years old. Age spots are also a type of hyperpigmentation.

  1. Congenital skin spots

Some skin blemishes appear on the skin at birth or shortly after. 

These spots may differ in shape, size, pattern and color. Moles and dark spots, popularly known as lunar eclipses, are birthmarks.

Acne development 12
  1. Popul

Papules are small skin lesions that have different types. The diameter of these complications is usually about 1 cm. 

Their color also varies from pink to brown. Papules can appear individually and in clusters or clusters on the skin.

Types of papules include; Chicken pox rash, eczema, dermatitis, shingles, and psoriasis.

type of acne pmple 5258
  1. Nodules

Nodules are a collection of unpleasant tissues larger than papules, and their diameter reaches one to two centimeters. 

Nodules appear on any surface of the skin. 

The color of this complication may be flesh-colored or reddish. Skin tags and skin warts are examples of nodules.

  1. Pustule

This condition includes raised, fluid-filled pimples known as purulent pimples. Whiteheads and chicken pox blisters are types of pustules. 

Skin diseases that cause this condition include scabies and rosacea, common skin diseases with visible blisters and blood vessels.

  1. Subcutaneous hair

Hair removal mehods like tweezing or waxing sometimes trap hair in the skin. This causes red bumps on the surface of the skin. 

People with curly hair are more prone to this condition than straight hair.

Ingrown hairs also become large, fluid-filled, red, yellow, or white cysts. Touching these pimples is very uncomfortable and painful.

  1. Melasma

Melasma is a common complication during pregnancy. This complication is primarily hormonal. Another cause of melasma is sun exposure.

Melasma 256548
  1. Skin cyst

There are several different types of skin cysts. 

The most common types of this complication are; Epidermoid, ganglion, and fat cysts. Cysts are benign glands that contain a special fluid. 

This complication may appear as bumps of different sizes on the surface or under the skin. In most cases, this complication has a round shape.

  1. Cold sores

Herpes simplex virus type HSV 1 causes cold sores. This complication is in the form of fluid-filled blisters in the mouth or the surrounding area. 

Itchingor tingling is one of the symptoms of cold sores. The blisters in this skin disease open after some time and turn into yellow and red crusts.

  1. Hyperpigmentation

Excessive production of melanin can cause skin complications in the form of dark spots. The causes of hyperpigmentation are:

  • Exposure to sunlight
  • Oscar
  • acne
  • Hormonal changes
  • pregnancy
Hyperpigmentation / skin blemishes

Do we need to see a doctor to treat skin spots?

Determining the cause of the desired skin spot plays an essential role in its treatment. Also, many skin spots can only be cured through medication and long-term treatment. For this reason, seeing a doctor to treat skin spots is recommended.

The best treatment for skin blemishes

The treatment of skin spots should be done according to their causes. If your spot gets worse with any treatment, stop using it and consult your doctor. 

Related: “How To Heal Pimples At Home? 6 Quick Method

However, usually, using the following methods is effective in treating all kinds of skin spots:

  • Good hygiene habits

Regular cleansing of the face, body, and hair helps to eliminate extra oil, dirt, and bacteria from the skin.

  • Anti-acne drugs

Many non-prescription products (scrubs, astringents, gels, and topical ointments) in the pharmacy help reduce or eliminate all types of pimples and acne. Try several before you find the best one. 

Finally, if your acne does not respond to over-the-counter medications, see your doctor to start treatment with antibiotics and topical medication.

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  • salicylic acid

Salicylic acid is known as an anti-blemish compound. Products containing this substance prevent the blockage of skin pores that lead to dark spots.

  • Hydrocortisone cream

Topical creams such as hydrocortisone reduce allergic reactions and irritations. This cream is also effective in reducing unwanted hair growth. 

If you use this cream, put aside other waxing methods for a while.

Creams like hydroquinone also help lighten skin spots, acne scars, and melasma by reducing the rate of melanin production.

  • Other skin spot treatment methods

If your skin blemishes are very deep, broad, and dark, you can try treatment methods such as microdermabrasionlaser therapy, chemical peeling, and cold therapy after consulting your doctor.

Use sunscreen creams and lotions. Long-sleeved clothes, brimmed hats, and sunglasses protect your skin from UVA and UVB rays.

Regular cleansing of the face, body, and hair removes pollution, bacteria, and excess fats from the skin and helps maintain the skin’s health. 

However, please do not overdo it because excessive cleansing causes skin irritation.

Diet for skin spot treatment

Sometimes skin blemishes are caused by allergies to certain foods. To find out which substance you are allergic to, keep a notebook, and every few days, remove an allergenic substance and write it down in the notebook. 

Consuming foods rich in vitamins C and E helps to maintain the health, vitality, and freshness of the skin.

Skin Blemishes To Worry About/ Comprehensive Guide 0001266144


In this article, we learned about skin blemishes, their causes, and treatment solutions, and we tried to explain all the common causes of acne and blemishes briefly.

All skin spots, especially on the face, are not dangerous and complicated problems. However, it affects your mood a lot.

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Author and specialist

Dr. Majid Zahrabi,


  • Board Certified Neurosurgeon
  • DHA certificate holder
  • Plantation certificate holder, France
  • Certified holder of Discogol, France
  • A pioneer in the non-surgical treatment of disc herniation in the Middle East and CIS countries.
  • Under the training and coaching of Professor Jacques Theron (founder of Discogel Therapy) since 2008
  • More than 400 successful cervical and 1300 lumbar discogel injections
  • Trained and certified several neurosurgeons and spine surgeons in the Middle East and CIS countries for the treatment of Discogel
  • Strong belief in patient-centered care planning and participation
  • Neurosurgeon and spine surgeon at Imam Khomeini and Amir Mazandarani Hospital, Sari, Iran, with more than 430 surgeries annually, 2000-2011
  • Neurosurgeon and spine surgeon at Farmaniyeh, Nikan and Yas Sepid Hospital, Tehran, Iran, with more than 400 surgeries annually, 2011-2012
  • Neurosurgeon at Iranian Hospital, Dubai, 2022-2023
  • Since 2015, he has been working as a reference doctor for the treatment of intervertebral disc herniation with Discogel and has trained many doctors of spine-related specialties in various countries of the Middle East and CIS in person/practically and online.



  • Individual training sessions under the direct supervision of Professor Jacques Theron in Discogel treatment, 2008-2020
  • Training sessions under the supervision of Professor Thierry Boye on spinal implants, 2007
  • Participation and presentation in several national and international medical and neuro-spinal conferences
  • Board certificate by Iran Neurosurgery Board, 2001
  • Neurosurgery assistant training course, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran, 1996-2001 (In 2001, he graduated from Isfahan University of Medical Sciences with the first rank in the country.
  • His thesis the titled:The Application of human amniotic membrane in repair of dura matter in dogs.” ( It was happening for the first time in the world. )
  • General medical education, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran, 1984-1993


Published books:

  • CT scan of the brain for doctors
  • Etiology and treatment of painful spine disorders
  • Atlas of diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of spine disorders
  • The most common mistakes in the treatment of spinal disorders
  • Reading brain CT scan in simple language (3rd place in the book of the year)
  • Treatment of head and spine injuries

Publications and articles:

  • Bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects of DISCOGEL® (https://www.researchgate.net/)
  • Muscle recovery, reduction of pain, and improvement of movement strategies in patients with lumbar discopathy after injection of Discogel.
  • The article on the initial results of the treatment of intervertebral disc herniation with discogel injection, which won the second-best poster rank at the Pan Arab International Congress of Interventional Radiology (March 14-16, 2015) and was accepted for presentation at the Chicago Pain Congress.
  • The use of human amniotic membrane in dura mater repair in dogs, a study for the first time in the world.



  • Annual Congress of Physiotherapists of Iran, 2019
  • Chicago International Pain Congress, 2019
  • Iran International Pain Management Congress, 2018
  • Annual Congress of Physiotherapists of Iran, 2018
  • Presentation of Discogel as an innovative solution for the treatment of spinal disc herniation in Armenia for orthopedic specialists and neurosurgeons, 2017
  • First Live Workshop and Seminar on Minimally Invasive Disc Therapy (DISCON), 2017
  • Presentation of Discogel as an innovative solution for the treatment of spinal disc herniation in Azerbaijan for orthopedic specialists and neurosurgeons, 2016
  • Seminar of Iranian official managers, 2016
  • Presentation of Discogel as an innovative solution for the treatment of spinal disc herniation in Tajikistan for orthopedic specialists and neurosurgeons, 2016
  • International Neurological Intervention Congress in Iran, 2014
  • Educational seminar for nurses on treatment approaches for head and spine trauma, 2014
  • Educational seminar for general practitioners on treatment approaches for head and spine trauma, 2014
  • Speech at the Retraining Seminar for General Practitioners and Specialists in Dubai (Discon) in 2017
  • Speech in the internal retraining courses of Irani Hospital, Dubai
  • Holding lecture sessions and practical workshops on the treatment of intervertebral disc herniation with discogel injection in Azerbaijan, Tajikistan, Ukraine, Oman, and Armenia during the years 2015 to 2021.
  • Giving a lecture and holding a practical workshop for neurosurgeons in Vietnam at Ho Chi Minh City University in 2023

Dr. Majid Zohrabi started treating his patients in Dubai in 2022 and continues his activities in private medical centers in the UAE.