What Causes MS? Unveiling The Mystery

What Causes MS? Unveiling The Mystery

Table of Contents

The causes and risk factors of multiple sclerosis or MS are complex. Researchers do not know exactly what causes this disease or why some people get it while others don’t.


Several main factors seem to play an effective role in root causes, including immune system health, infectious diseases, genetics, lifestyle, and more. While each can explain part of the causes of the MS puzzle, no one can yet explain everything about the disease.


According to research, women are 2 to 3 times more at risk of developing MS than men, and its rate is increasing faster in women than in men. A 2019 study indicated that in 2017, men accounted for 26 per cent of MS cases, while women accounted for 74 per cent. Researchers believe that the hormonal difference ( which can be a sample cause ) in men and women is not the same.

In addition, most cases of MS are between the ages of 20 and 50. However, MS is possible both in childhood and old age.


MS is one of the autoimmune diseases that affects the nervous system of the brain and organs. The name and statistics of this disease may be alarming for many, but let us put your mind at ease first: if MS is controlled in time, the life of MS patients will be long.


In this article from “drhealthandbeauty”, we will examine the most important causes of MS to give you a clear perspective that you will be able to get rid of this disease with a timely diagnosis and Causes management.

Known reasons

  • The immune system is at the peak of causes

    Although no one knows what causes it, most researchers believe that MS is an autoimmune disorder. This means that the symptoms are caused by the immune system attacking the healthy parts of the body so that the person’s own tissue is identified as a virus or an infectious agent.

Specifically, in MS, the body’s immune system attacks cells in the brain and spinal cord because of misdiagnosis, damaging the myelin sheath, a layer of cells that protects nerve cells and improves their function.

This damage affects the function of these nerves, which is the source of MS symptoms and the inability to communicate.

  • infectious diseases

    Some viruses are known to have devastating effects similar to MS. Some researchers believe that infections may trigger the immune system to attack nerve cells. And be one of the unknown sources of MS.

Basically, what they think about this cause is that, to your immune system, the virus or bacteria of an infection “looks like” a nerve cell. To fight the virus, the immune system produces specialized cells called T cells, which remain in your body after the infection is gone, and when they “see” nerve cells, they become confused and mistake it for They are called attackers and wrongly attacked.

A virus commonly associated with MS is the Epstein-Barr virus, which causes mononucleosis (mono or kissing disease). This virus is very common and can cause infection at some stage of life.

Early exposure to Epstein-Barr may be a source of the progression of MS. But experts are not sure of its essential role.

Currently, no infectious disease (viral, bacterial or fungal) has been found to definitively cause MS.

  • Genetics

    Researchers believe that certain genetic combinations can increase the risk of MS. In fact, scientists have isolated a number of genes that are assumed to be the cause of this disease or be related to it, the majority of which are located near genes related to the immune system.

In addition to being the cause of your MS, your genes may also help predict the type of MS you will develop.

However, it is important to know that MS is not a genetic disease – meaning that there is no single gene in a person’s inherited genes that definitively causes the disease. However, genes have been found to be one of the most influential factors among many symptoms.

Because of this genetic predisposition, if you have relatives who have had MS, your chances of having the disease increase.

Your probability of getting MS disease is approximately:

1 in 750 if relatives are not affected

1 in 50 if parents are affected

1 in 20 siblings are affected

1 in 4 if the twins are identical

Interestingly, identical twins do not always have MS, even if they share 100% of the same genetic information. This is why researchers have concluded that genetics is not the main cause of MS.

  • lifestyle

    Certain elements of your lifestyle can affect your risk of developing MS, including where you live and what you put in your body.


  • Geography

    It is interesting to know that where you live has been suggested as one of the possible causes of MS. Based on research, MS is more common in areas further from the equator, especially above 40 degrees latitude. Rates in these northern areas can be 5 times higher than other areas.

If you moved from a high-risk area to a low-risk area before the age of 15, The importance of this cause is weakened. Researchers think puberty hormones may somehow interact with geography and cause an increasing risk of MS.

It is interesting to know that there are geographical areas where MS rates are higher. The researchers studied them to find out what factor in the environment might be a source of this. But unfortunately, So far, not much has been achieved.

  • Vitamin D deficiency

    Sunlight may play at least some role in geographic risk because people in the Northwest are more likely to be vitamin D deficient.

According to a study in Neurology, high levels of vitamin D (greater than 75 ng/mL) help prevent MS. Maintaining vitamin D levels may protect people with MS from relapse and worsening of the disease.

In this study, the lack of vitamin D levels in the body has been identified as one of the causes that can contribute to the development of MS.

  • Other lifestyle factors

    Other lifestyle factors that scientists believe can lead to MS include:
    • High salt diet
    • Obesity (especially in adults)
    • smoking

This may not be clear, but we should try to reduce the existing risk.

Causes of the prevalence of MS in women

  • Hormones and other female factors

    Hormones are one of the causes that help to understand the differences in diseases of men and women. When a disease affects women more than men, scientists probably seek the role of sex hormones such as testosterone and estrogen. There is less of a difference between boys and girls in MS rates among children before puberty, but In older children and adults, this trend changes and affects more women in adolescence and adulthood.


  • Pregnancy concerns

    Pregnancy can cause MS means, which affects remission and relapse. During pregnancy, some women with MS notice a reduction in symptoms. It can flare up after the baby is born. Postpartum relapse is a well-known phenomenon among MS researchers and patients alike. Studies have shown that women who are newly diagnosed with MS should consider participating in clinical trials in which new treatments and better symptom management in “Women with MS can give birth to healthy babies, but they should carefully discuss their concerns and risks with their doctor.

What is the life expectancy of patients with MS?

Life expectancy in patients with MS is different for each patient and their special conditions. However, according to the available statistics, the average lifespan of these patients after diagnosis is 25 to 35 years.

Of course, this period depends on the time of diagnosis, the process of disease development and its control


Multiple Sclerosis is a condition in which the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissues and cells. In fact, the immune system of people with MS attacks the myelin. Myelin is a protective sheath that covers the nerves of the brain and spinal cord. Damage to the myelin sheath interrupts nerve signals from the brain to other parts of the body. This damage can lead to symptoms that affect the brain, spinal cord, and eyes.

Exposure to certain viruses and bacteria, place of residence, gene mutations, and the way the immune system works are among the possible causes of MS.

Based on the valuable data of this article, you can understand that if you can diagnose the causes and factors of MS at the right time and manage it correctly, you will be able to control and treat this disease.

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Author and specialist

Dr. Majid Zahrabi,


  • Board Certified Neurosurgeon
  • DHA certificate holder
  • Plantation certificate holder, France
  • Certified holder of Discogol, France
  • A pioneer in the non-surgical treatment of disc herniation in the Middle East and CIS countries.
  • Under the training and coaching of Professor Jacques Theron (founder of Discogel Therapy) since 2008
  • More than 400 successful cervical and 1300 lumbar discogel injections
  • Trained and certified several neurosurgeons and spine surgeons in the Middle East and CIS countries for the treatment of Discogel
  • Strong belief in patient-centered care planning and participation
  • Neurosurgeon and spine surgeon at Imam Khomeini and Amir Mazandarani Hospital, Sari, Iran, with more than 430 surgeries annually, 2000-2011
  • Neurosurgeon and spine surgeon at Farmaniyeh, Nikan and Yas Sepid Hospital, Tehran, Iran, with more than 400 surgeries annually, 2011-2012
  • Neurosurgeon at Iranian Hospital, Dubai, 2022-2023
  • Since 2015, he has been working as a reference doctor for the treatment of intervertebral disc herniation with Discogel and has trained many doctors of spine-related specialties in various countries of the Middle East and CIS in person/practically and online.



  • Individual training sessions under the direct supervision of Professor Jacques Theron in Discogel treatment, 2008-2020
  • Training sessions under the supervision of Professor Thierry Boye on spinal implants, 2007
  • Participation and presentation in several national and international medical and neuro-spinal conferences
  • Board certificate by Iran Neurosurgery Board, 2001
  • Neurosurgery assistant training course, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran, 1996-2001 (In 2001, he graduated from Isfahan University of Medical Sciences with the first rank in the country.
  • His thesis the titled:The Application of human amniotic membrane in repair of dura matter in dogs.” ( It was happening for the first time in the world. )
  • General medical education, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran, 1984-1993


Published books:

  • CT scan of the brain for doctors
  • Etiology and treatment of painful spine disorders
  • Atlas of diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of spine disorders
  • The most common mistakes in the treatment of spinal disorders
  • Reading brain CT scan in simple language (3rd place in the book of the year)
  • Treatment of head and spine injuries

Publications and articles:

  • Bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects of DISCOGEL® (https://www.researchgate.net/)
  • Muscle recovery, reduction of pain, and improvement of movement strategies in patients with lumbar discopathy after injection of Discogel.
  • The article on the initial results of the treatment of intervertebral disc herniation with discogel injection, which won the second-best poster rank at the Pan Arab International Congress of Interventional Radiology (March 14-16, 2015) and was accepted for presentation at the Chicago Pain Congress.
  • The use of human amniotic membrane in dura mater repair in dogs, a study for the first time in the world.



  • Annual Congress of Physiotherapists of Iran, 2019
  • Chicago International Pain Congress, 2019
  • Iran International Pain Management Congress, 2018
  • Annual Congress of Physiotherapists of Iran, 2018
  • Presentation of Discogel as an innovative solution for the treatment of spinal disc herniation in Armenia for orthopedic specialists and neurosurgeons, 2017
  • First Live Workshop and Seminar on Minimally Invasive Disc Therapy (DISCON), 2017
  • Presentation of Discogel as an innovative solution for the treatment of spinal disc herniation in Azerbaijan for orthopedic specialists and neurosurgeons, 2016
  • Seminar of Iranian official managers, 2016
  • Presentation of Discogel as an innovative solution for the treatment of spinal disc herniation in Tajikistan for orthopedic specialists and neurosurgeons, 2016
  • International Neurological Intervention Congress in Iran, 2014
  • Educational seminar for nurses on treatment approaches for head and spine trauma, 2014
  • Educational seminar for general practitioners on treatment approaches for head and spine trauma, 2014
  • Speech at the Retraining Seminar for General Practitioners and Specialists in Dubai (Discon) in 2017
  • Speech in the internal retraining courses of Irani Hospital, Dubai
  • Holding lecture sessions and practical workshops on the treatment of intervertebral disc herniation with discogel injection in Azerbaijan, Tajikistan, Ukraine, Oman, and Armenia during the years 2015 to 2021.
  • Giving a lecture and holding a practical workshop for neurosurgeons in Vietnam at Ho Chi Minh City University in 2023

Dr. Majid Zohrabi started treating his patients in Dubai in 2022 and continues his activities in private medical centers in the UAE.