The causes and risk factors of multiple sclerosis or MS are complex. Researchers do not know exactly what causes this disease or why some people get it while others don’t.
Several main factors seem to play an effective role in root causes, including immune system health, infectious diseases, genetics, lifestyle, and more. While each can explain part of the causes of the MS puzzle, no one can yet explain everything about the disease.
According to research, women are 2 to 3 times more at risk of developing MS than men, and its rate is increasing faster in women than in men. A 2019 study indicated that in 2017, men accounted for 26 per cent of MS cases, while women accounted for 74 per cent. Researchers believe that the hormonal difference ( which can be a sample cause ) in men and women is not the same.
In addition, most cases of MS are between the ages of 20 and 50. However, MS is possible both in childhood and old age.
MS is one of the autoimmune diseases that affects the nervous system of the brain and organs. The name and statistics of this disease may be alarming for many, but let us put your mind at ease first: if MS is controlled in time, the life of MS patients will be long.
In this article from “drhealthandbeauty”, we will examine the most important causes of MS to give you a clear perspective that you will be able to get rid of this disease with a timely diagnosis and Causes management.
Specifically, in MS, the body’s immune system attacks cells in the brain and spinal cord because of misdiagnosis, damaging the myelin sheath, a layer of cells that protects nerve cells and improves their function.
This damage affects the function of these nerves, which is the source of MS symptoms and the inability to communicate.
Some viruses are known to have devastating effects similar to MS. Some researchers believe that infections may trigger the immune system to attack nerve cells. And be one of the unknown sources of MS.
Basically, what they think about this cause is that, to your immune system, the virus or bacteria of an infection “looks like” a nerve cell. To fight the virus, the immune system produces specialized cells called T cells, which remain in your body after the infection is gone, and when they “see” nerve cells, they become confused and mistake it for They are called attackers and wrongly attacked.
A virus commonly associated with MS is the Epstein-Barr virus, which causes mononucleosis (mono or kissing disease). This virus is very common and can cause infection at some stage of life.
Early exposure to Epstein-Barr may be a source of the progression of MS. But experts are not sure of its essential role.
Currently, no infectious disease (viral, bacterial or fungal) has been found to definitively cause MS.
In addition to being the cause of your MS, your genes may also help predict the type of MS you will develop.
However, it is important to know that MS is not a genetic disease – meaning that there is no single gene in a person’s inherited genes that definitively causes the disease. However, genes have been found to be one of the most influential factors among many symptoms.
Because of this genetic predisposition, if you have relatives who have had MS, your chances of having the disease increase.
Your probability of getting MS disease is approximately:
1 in 750 if relatives are not affected
1 in 50 if parents are affected
1 in 20 siblings are affected
1 in 4 if the twins are identical
Interestingly, identical twins do not always have MS, even if they share 100% of the same genetic information. This is why researchers have concluded that genetics is not the main cause of MS.
If you moved from a high-risk area to a low-risk area before the age of 15, The importance of this cause is weakened. Researchers think puberty hormones may somehow interact with geography and cause an increasing risk of MS.
It is interesting to know that there are geographical areas where MS rates are higher. The researchers studied them to find out what factor in the environment might be a source of this. But unfortunately, So far, not much has been achieved.
According to a study in Neurology, high levels of vitamin D (greater than 75 ng/mL) help prevent MS. Maintaining vitamin D levels may protect people with MS from relapse and worsening of the disease.
In this study, the lack of vitamin D levels in the body has been identified as one of the causes that can contribute to the development of MS.
This may not be clear, but we should try to reduce the existing risk.
Life expectancy in patients with MS is different for each patient and their special conditions. However, according to the available statistics, the average lifespan of these patients after diagnosis is 25 to 35 years.
Of course, this period depends on the time of diagnosis, the process of disease development and its control
Multiple Sclerosis is a condition in which the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissues and cells. In fact, the immune system of people with MS attacks the myelin. Myelin is a protective sheath that covers the nerves of the brain and spinal cord. Damage to the myelin sheath interrupts nerve signals from the brain to other parts of the body. This damage can lead to symptoms that affect the brain, spinal cord, and eyes.
Exposure to certain viruses and bacteria, place of residence, gene mutations, and the way the immune system works are among the possible causes of MS.
Based on the valuable data of this article, you can understand that if you can diagnose the causes and factors of MS at the right time and manage it correctly, you will be able to control and treat this disease.
Dr. Majid Zohrabi started treating his patients in Dubai in 2022 and continues his activities in private medical centers in the UAE.