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Skin ( Guardian Silk ) / Function & Disorders

Skin ( Guardian Silk ) / Function & Disorders

Table of Contents

Introduction

Skin is a soft external tissue that covers the entire body of vertebrates. In humans, the skin” is considered the body’s largest organ; its area is about 2 square meters. The Skin keeps our internal organs from the surrounding environment by using a multi-layered system including different cell layers, cell barriers, and protective oils.

What is Skin?

The Skin is more than a protective barrier between the body and its surroundings. This large organ also has a vital role in maintaining the health of the body; among these roles, we can mention the regulation of body temperature through sweating and hot flushes when it is hot and highlighting the place where hair grows when it is cold. In addition, the Skin can produce vitamin D from sunlight, which is vital for bone health.

The type of Skin can vary greatly between species and even between individuals.

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Human Skin

Human Skin is a covering tissue on the body’s surface that protects it from the external environment and also receives sensory motivation from the external environment. The Skin contains three layers of tissue:

  • Epidermis

    This is the external layer of the Skin, which forms the primary protective structure and is also called the stratum corneum.

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  • Dermis

    It is a fibrous layer that supports and strengthens the epidermis.

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  • Subcutaneous Tissue

    It is the deepest layer of the Skin in the body, which consists of a subcutaneous layer of fat under the dermis and provides nutrients for the other two layers of the Skin and the body in relation to the outside environment. It acts as an insulator.

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Skin structure

As mentioned above, in mammals, there are two main skin layers: the epidermis, which is in direct contact with the body’s environment, and the dermis, which is the layer located beneath the epidermis. These two layers are vital for many of the Skin’s functions. In this section, we will examine these skin layers in more detail.

  • Epidermis

    The epidermis is a layer of Skin that prevents pathogens from entering the body and water from leaving the body. 

This layer is composed of flat cells called squamous cells. Cobblestone means mosaic-like and describes the smooth, multi-parted shape of these cells.

The cells of the epidermis layer include different types, which include:

    • Keratinocytes: These cells can protect the body from the entry of pathogens.
    • Langerhans cells: These cells help in the body’s immune response in case of infection.
    • Melanocytes: Melanin-containing cells that produce pigments that give color to the Skin.
    • Merkel cells: These cells are oval-shaped sensory receptors that play an important role in the sense of touch.

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Most burns and skin injuries include injuries that occur in the epidermis. Such injuries can heal quickly. Deeper injuries that also damage the dermis layer may be very serious and dangerous.

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  • Basement membrane

    The basement membrane is a thin layer of fibers between the dermis and the epidermis. This membrane can control any compound that is exchanged between the two layers of the dermis and the epidermis and is considered a double defense layer against pathogens and a protector against the loss of water and other vital substances through the Skin.

When the Skin needs to grow or heal, the basement membrane can relax its control over the passage of compounds between the two layers and allow water and nutrients to repair the damaged epidermis. Hence, this part helps accelerate the healing process of the epidermis. It has an effective role.

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  • Dermis layer

    The dermis or Skin is a layer of the skin structure located in deeper parts than the epidermis and is placed as a shield around the body that protects it from severe and harsh environmental effects. 

This layer contains many complex structures, including blood vessels, nerves, hair follicles, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands. These fat glands, also known as “sebaceous glands,” create a waxy and oily substance that covers the entire Skin to protect it from environmental damage.

The dermis consists of fibers that include collagen and glycosaminoglycan compounds and are able to hold a large amount of water in this layer, thus preventing the swelling and bruising of the Skin to some extent. 

A network of elastic fibers like collagen keeps the Skin tight and repairs it after stretching and damage.

The dermis cells are nourished by blood vessels, while none of the blood vessels penetrate the epidermis, and the epidermis receives material only by diffusion from its underlying layer. The dermis also has nerves and sensory organs at different levels.

Skin functions

Skin has various functions in the body that can be useful for organisms. Among the important functions of the Skin in the body, the following can be mentioned:

  • Protecting the body against the external environment

    This function of the Skin is its most important function; as the first defense barrier of the body, the Skin prevents the entry of pathogenic agents such as viruses and bacteria into the body tissues so that these pathogenic agents can only enter the Skin in the event of damage to the Skin and wounds created in it or from They can enter the body through cavities such as the nose and mouth.

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  • Prevent water loss

    Amphibians, with their very thin Skin, must always be near water to prevent their Skin from drying out. Humans and most other land animals have thick skins that decrease very little water. When humans live in desert conditions, their Skin becomes thicker to prevent the body from losing water through sweating in the dry air.

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  • Understanding and feeling the external conditions of the body

The Skin has nerves that transmit information about pressure, the type of foreign substances, heat, cold, pain, and pleasure to the brain. This feature allows the organism to respond appropriately to its surroundings.

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  • Body temperature adjustment

    The Skin of humans and some other mammals can lose water regularly through the process of sweating. By releasing water on the Skin, the body can cool itself through evaporation. Since the hottest water molecules evaporate first, as a result, with this evaporation, heat is also removed from the body, and its temperature decreases.

The body can also regulate heatstroke by “flushing”; this process allows the body to flow blood with a high temperature from the internal parts of the body to the Skin, thereby reducing the blood temperature and generally regulating the body temperature. to be

In addition to the above mechanisms, it is thought that the phenomenon of “spiking hair” is a response to regulate body temperature. 

When this phenomenon happens in the body, the small muscles in the place where the hair grows in the Skin are tightened in such a way that it causes the body hair to stand up. In this case, by increasing the amount of air trapped on the surface of the Skin by skin hair, the body temperature decreases less, and the body stays warm.

Some scientists believe that this phenomenon occurs in response to fear or other strong emotions in the body, which may be similar to the same phenomenon in animals to scare predators.

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  • Camouflage

    Many animals have Skin that is made of specific colors and patterns that blend in with their surroundings and cause visual errors. 

This skin feature is very important for both predator and prey species. If the hunters cannot easily see and identify their prey in the environment, they cannot have a successful hunt. 

On the other hand, if predators can camouflage themselves well in the environment using their skin features, they cannot be detected by prey species.

The Skin of many animals produces a static color pattern, such as the brown body color of goats and deer, which imitates this color from the grass and dead leaves of the environment, and the same mechanism in the Skin of the “vine snake” that includes bright green patches or the color of infected flowers. “Fish table” is seen.

However, a few species have Skin that uses more advanced camouflage mechanisms. Sunflowers and octopuses are among these species whose Skins have cells that can release various amounts of pigment at will. 

This mechanism essentially allows their Skin to act like a television screen, so these creatures can change their skin color to match any background color in their environment.

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  • save

    Many animals store fat and water in their skin tissues. This storage allows the organism to cover these materials as insulation around the body and be used when the body needs them.

Many animals that live in cold climates have this ability in a more advanced state and have created thick layers of fat bubbles under the Skin that act as a good insulator between the low temperature of the outside environment and the internal organs of the animal’s body.

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  • Secretion of messenger compounds

    The fluid that the Skin secretes from the body, such as sweat, can also have another purpose; for example, this fluid can be considered a signal to other animals and used in communication functions. Many animals mark their territory with a chemical compound that has a specific scent from glands in their Skin. 

These markers can even include information about an animal’s age, sex, health, and availability for mating.

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Types of Skin in Humans

While the Skin of all humans has basically the same structure, minor biological differences can greatly affect the proper care and maintenance of the body’s Skin. People can have more or less active oil glands or more or less active sweat glands, and also different people may have different abilities to store water in their Skin.

  • Greasy Skin

    People who have oily or oily Skin may have large pores in their Skin, and often, the Skin of these people’s faces is shiny, and many pimples may be seen on their face skin. 

This skin appearance is because the sebaceous glands in their dermis layer produce a lot of oil, which can create many pores in the Skin. These pores cause pimples and problems in the appearance of these people’s Skin.

  • Mixed Skin

    Combination or mixed Skin is the type that is oily in some areas but may be dry in other areas. In people with combination skin, the nose, chin, and forehead are the most common oily areas of the face. Other areas, such as species, may be dry.

People with combination skin have large pores, blackheads, and shiny Skin because of the production of large amounts of oil by the glands in the dermis. This amount of fat can accumulate in the skin pores and cause blackheads and skin spots.

  • Natural Skin

    Normal or natural Skin is Skin with an average level of oil and water, which protects the Skin from environmental factors but does not give the Skin a skinny or greasy appearance. This type of Skin has small pores and few blemishes because the oil-producing glands in this type of Skin are too active.

  • Dry Skin

    Peskin with dry Skin has a harsh and dull face and often has more wrinkles and lines than other skin types, especially on the face. In dry Skin, Skin are often red spots caused by sensitivity, and there are almost no pores for fat accumulation.

As a result, the Skin can quickly lose its moisture; in this case, the Skin becomes very irritable and gets damaged quickly.

People who live in dry areas like deserts are more likely to show symptoms of dry Skin and skin loss of more moisture than people who live in humid areas.

Skin problems, disorders, and diseases

As the first cell layer of the body that is in contact with the outside environment, the Skin suffers from many injuries and diseases. Some of these problems, disorders, and skin diseases are mentioned below:

  • Rash or rash (skin lesion): Almost any change in the appearance of the Skin is called a rash. Most rashes are caused by simple skin irritation. Other types of rashes may be caused by some skin diseases.

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  • Dermatitis: Dermatitis is a common term for skin inflammation. Atopic dermatitis (a type of eczema) is the most common type.

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  • Eczema: This problem is a type of skin inflammation (dermatitis) that causes swelling and itching in the Skin. Most of the time, eczema is caused by an overactive immune system in people. Basically, eczema is chronic and is considered a type of skin sensitivity that causes redness and itching of the Skin, which is more common in children.

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  • Psoriasis is an autoimmune illness that can cause various skin rashes. The creation of silver plaques and scaling is one of the most common symptoms of this disease. Psoriasis is a skin state that leads to red, scaly, and itchy patches, usually on the knees, elbows, upper body, and scalp.

According to experts, the reason for this disease is a disorder in the body’s immune system, which causes the Skin to weaken faster than normal.

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  • Dandruff: It is a skin disease related to the scalp caused by seborrheic dermatitis, psoriasis, or eczema.

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  • Acne: The most common form of skin problems is acne. Acne is a skin disease that causes whiteheads, blackheads, red (papule), purulent (pustule), nodular, and cystic pimples in different parts of the body. Acne is more common among teenagers, although it may occur at other ages for some reason.

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  • Cellulitis: This complication, inflammation of the dermis and subcutaneous tissues due to bacterial infection, causes cellulitis. Red, hot, and often painful skin rashes are symptoms of this disease.

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  • Melanoma: Melanoma is a dangerous type of skin cancer. This type of cancer is caused by damage caused by excessive exposure to sunlight and some other factors. Melanoma can be diagnosed with skin biopsies.

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  • Basal cell carcinoma: This disease is the most common type of skin cancer. Basal cell carcinoma is less dangerous than melanoma cancer because, in this type of cancer, cells grow and spread more slowly.

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  • Seborrheic keratosis: It is a benign and often itchy growth of keratinocytes, which are also called age spots because they occur in the body with age.

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  • Actinic keratosis: bumps and skin spots or flaking that form on the Skin after exposure to the sun is called actinic keratosis. Actinic keratoses can sometimes lead to skin cancers.

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  • Squamous cell carcinoma: another type of cancer related to the Skin is cutaneous cell carcinoma, which often begins with an unhealed wound or abnormal growth of skin cells. The probability of this disease usually increases in areas that are more exposed to the sun.

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  • Herpes: Herpes viruses (HSV-1) and (HSV-2) can cause periodic blisters or skin irritation around the lips or genital area.

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  • Hives: Hives include raised, red, itchy patches on the Skin that appear suddenly. Hives are usually created by an allergic reaction.

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  • Viral Exantham: Many viral infections can cause red inflammation over large areas of the Skin. TSkindisease is especially common in children.

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  • Shingles or (herpes zoster): Shingles is a skin disease caused by infection with the chicken pox virus. This disease is a painful inflammation and often occurs on one side of the body. The new shingles vaccine can prevent the disease in most people.

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  • Scabies: Scabies is an itchy skin inflammation caused by the bite of an insect called Sarcoptes scabiei. This illness is highly contagious and will transmitted to others simply by touching the equipment of an infected person.

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  • Spots: Spots and spots or vitiligo is a skin illness that leads to the loss of skin color in the form of spots in certain areas. These spots can appear in any part of the body, even on the hair and the inside of the mouth. The color of Skin anSkinir is caused by the presence of pigments or melanin, and this disease occurs when the cells that create melanin are destroyed due to autoimmune or genetics. Fortunately, this disease is not life-threatening or contagious.

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  • Latex allergy: Latex allergy is a skin reaction to specific proteins in the latex material. This may cause itchy Skin or even anaphylactic shock. Many medical devices, such as gloves and condoms, contain latex. So avoid contact with them to prevent symptoms.

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  • Butterfly disease: Butterfly disease or epidermolysis bullosa is a rare disease that causes fragile and blistered Skin. TSkin blisters may appear in response to a minor injury and even to heat, rubbing, scratching, or stretching. Most types of this disease are hereditary and usually appear in infancy or early childhood. Some people do not have symptoms and skin lesions until puberty or early adulthood.

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  • Rosacea: Rosacea is a skin disorder that leads to redness and protruding blood vessels on the face. It may also cause small, red, pus-filled bumps. These symptoms may flare up for a long time and then disappear for a while. For unknown reasons, this disorder is more common in middle-aged women with fair Skin.

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  • Skina: Milia disease causes small white bumps on the nose, chin, or cheeks of the child. This disease is more common in babies. Basically, it occurs when small scales are trapped in the small pores of the Skin.

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  • Skin fungus: There are millions of fungi that live in the soil, on plants, and even on your Skin. Sometimes, they may lead to skin problems like rashes or bumps due to the diminishing of the body’s immune system. Among the types of diseases caused by them, we can mention athlete’s foot, yeast infection, rider’s itch, and ringworm, each of which has its own treatment method.

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  • Melasma is a special skin condition that causes dark spots on the face and rarely on the neck, chest, or arms. Melasma is more common in pregnant women, people with darker skin tones, and those who are exposed to the sun a lot. Melasma has no symptoms other than skin discoloration. This complication may disappear by itself within a year, but sometimes, it may have a permanent effect.

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  • Corns and calluses are two types of skin lesions that cause the Skin toSkinden in some areas. These lesions in the cornea can be painful. Corns and calluses are usually caused by skin friction, constant pressure on the Skin, and the use of inappropriate shoes, and they are not dangerous.

Corns have a hard core that may cause inflammation and even pain in the surrounding area. Calluses are usually larger than corns, have different shapes, and are not painful. Corns usually occur on the soles, heels, ankles, knees, and even hands.

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  • Head lice is one of the skin problems that many people suffer from, especially in public environments such as schools or environments with poor hygiene. These small insects feed on the blood of the human scalp and cause itching. These mites can easily be transmitted between people. There are many medications available to treat head lice, but you need to follow the directions carefully because getting rid of lice can be a bit difficult.

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  • Korak or Demel: Boils are red bumps on the Skin that can be pus-filled and painful. These large boils are a large, pus-filled lump with a yellow or white tip. The cork starts to drain after a while and can cause symptoms such as feeling unwell and fever.

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  • Jaundice: Impetus is a bacterial and contagious infection and one of the most common skin infections in young children. In jaundice, sores, and itchy blisters are usually formed around the mouth and other parts of the face. These sores may burst and leave a crust. These crusts eventually dry out and cause a slight redness that eventually goes away.

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  • Chicken pox: Chickenpox is a viral disorder caused by the varicella-zoster virus. This disease is contagious, and vaccination is recommended. Chickenpox causes itchy, red, fluid-filled blisters on the Skin in different parts of the body. Fever, sore throat, body aches, and decrease in appetite are other symptoms of this disease. Note that this virus can be transmitted until the blisters heal.

Sexually transmitted skin diseases

There are also common skin diseases that are classified as sexually transmitted diseases, that is, skin infections that can be transmitted through sex. The most important of these diseases are:

  1. Genital herpes

    • Genital herpes is a sexually transferred illness that causes skin symptoms such as herpes and blisters in the genital area. The cause of this infection is herpes simplex virus type 2. This virus is transmitted from sexual contact and pain to pain, etc,hing, and sores in the genital area.

Currently, there is no definitive cure for this illness, but with the use of some drugs, the symptoms can be alleviated, and the risk of transmission can be reduced. Since this virus is easily transmitted through unprotected sexual contact and even oral sex, it is very important to use a condom during sex.

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  1. Genital Warts

    • Genital warts, or HPV, is a sexually transmitted disease that causes skin symptoms and warts that look like cauliflower.

The cause of this disease is some strains of human papillomavirus. This disease does not cause clinical symptoms in many people, but some strains are the main reason for cervical cancer and vaginal cancer in women.

These warts can be flat or raised, little or large, pink or skin-colored. Due to the easy transmission and high prevalence of this virus and its dangerous side effects, it is important to be sure to inject the vaccine, the Gardasil vaccine, and periodically perform the HPV test and Pap smear test in women.

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  1. syphilis

    • Syphilis is another sexually transmitted and skin disease caused by Treponema pallidum infection. This disease can be treated in the early stages.

But if it is not diagnosed and progresses slowly, it can cause many complications for the person, complications such as neurological problems and even death. This virus is highly contagious and is usually transmitted through sexual intercourse.

The symptoms of this illness are various depending on the stage of the disease. This virus can cause open sores called chancres or wart-like sores and various pimples.

Conclusion

There are many types of skin disorders and diseases, and in this article, we tried to examine the most common and important ones. These diseases make up a significant part of the world’s diseases, and almost 25% of the world’s people suffer from some kind of skin disease. 

There are some skin symptoms that are common to many skin diseases, and it is better to see a dermatologist if you see and continue to develop them.

The way to prevent skin diseases depends on the cause. Obviously, you cannot prevent the development of skin diseases of genetic origin or autoimmune diseases, but many skin diseases can be prevented and treated by following health and medical tips.

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Author and specialist

Dr. Majid Zahrabi,

Neurosurgeon

  • Board Certified Neurosurgeon
  • DHA certificate holder
  • Plantation certificate holder, France
  • Certified holder of Discogol, France
  • A pioneer in the non-surgical treatment of disc herniation in the Middle East and CIS countries.
  • Under the training and coaching of Professor Jacques Theron (founder of Discogel Therapy) since 2008
  • More than 400 successful cervical and 1300 lumbar discogel injections
  • Trained and certified several neurosurgeons and spine surgeons in the Middle East and CIS countries for the treatment of Discogel
  • Strong belief in patient-centered care planning and participation
  • Neurosurgeon and spine surgeon at Imam Khomeini and Amir Mazandarani Hospital, Sari, Iran, with more than 430 surgeries annually, 2000-2011
  • Neurosurgeon and spine surgeon at Farmaniyeh, Nikan and Yas Sepid Hospital, Tehran, Iran, with more than 400 surgeries annually, 2011-2012
  • Neurosurgeon at Iranian Hospital, Dubai, 2022-2023
  • Since 2015, he has been working as a reference doctor for the treatment of intervertebral disc herniation with Discogel and has trained many doctors of spine-related specialties in various countries of the Middle East and CIS in person/practically and online.

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Education:

  • Individual training sessions under the direct supervision of Professor Jacques Theron in Discogel treatment, 2008-2020
  • Training sessions under the supervision of Professor Thierry Boye on spinal implants, 2007
  • Participation and presentation in several national and international medical and neuro-spinal conferences
  • Board certificate by Iran Neurosurgery Board, 2001
  • Neurosurgery assistant training course, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran, 1996-2001 (In 2001, he graduated from Isfahan University of Medical Sciences with the first rank in the country.
  • His thesis the titled:The Application of human amniotic membrane in repair of dura matter in dogs.” ( It was happening for the first time in the world. )
  • General medical education, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran, 1984-1993

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Published books:

  • CT scan of the brain for doctors
  • Etiology and treatment of painful spine disorders
  • Atlas of diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of spine disorders
  • The most common mistakes in the treatment of spinal disorders
  • Reading brain CT scan in simple language (3rd place in the book of the year)
  • Treatment of head and spine injuries

Publications and articles:

  • Bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects of DISCOGEL® (https://www.researchgate.net/)
  • Muscle recovery, reduction of pain, and improvement of movement strategies in patients with lumbar discopathy after injection of Discogel.
  • The article on the initial results of the treatment of intervertebral disc herniation with discogel injection, which won the second-best poster rank at the Pan Arab International Congress of Interventional Radiology (March 14-16, 2015) and was accepted for presentation at the Chicago Pain Congress.
  • The use of human amniotic membrane in dura mater repair in dogs, a study for the first time in the world.

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Lectures:

  • Annual Congress of Physiotherapists of Iran, 2019
  • Chicago International Pain Congress, 2019
  • Iran International Pain Management Congress, 2018
  • Annual Congress of Physiotherapists of Iran, 2018
  • Presentation of Discogel as an innovative solution for the treatment of spinal disc herniation in Armenia for orthopedic specialists and neurosurgeons, 2017
  • First Live Workshop and Seminar on Minimally Invasive Disc Therapy (DISCON), 2017
  • Presentation of Discogel as an innovative solution for the treatment of spinal disc herniation in Azerbaijan for orthopedic specialists and neurosurgeons, 2016
  • Seminar of Iranian official managers, 2016
  • Presentation of Discogel as an innovative solution for the treatment of spinal disc herniation in Tajikistan for orthopedic specialists and neurosurgeons, 2016
  • International Neurological Intervention Congress in Iran, 2014
  • Educational seminar for nurses on treatment approaches for head and spine trauma, 2014
  • Educational seminar for general practitioners on treatment approaches for head and spine trauma, 2014
  • Speech at the Retraining Seminar for General Practitioners and Specialists in Dubai (Discon) in 2017
  • Speech in the internal retraining courses of Irani Hospital, Dubai
  • Holding lecture sessions and practical workshops on the treatment of intervertebral disc herniation with discogel injection in Azerbaijan, Tajikistan, Ukraine, Oman, and Armenia during the years 2015 to 2021.
  • Giving a lecture and holding a practical workshop for neurosurgeons in Vietnam at Ho Chi Minh City University in 2023

Dr. Majid Zohrabi started treating his patients in Dubai in 2022 and continues his activities in private medical centers in the UAE.